MEDICRIT Revista de Medicina Crítica, Vol 6, No 1 (2009)

Enfermedad Diseminada por Mycobacterium avium en Paciente Infectado por el VIH. A Propósito de un Caso y Revisión de la Literatura

Alicia Beteta López, Sonia Casallo Blanco, Lorena Vega Prado, María José Martín Barranco

Resumen


Presentamos un caso de infección diseminada por Mycobacterium avium con afectación hepática en un paciente diagnosticado de SIDA quince años antes. Las infecciones por Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) son una complicación frecuente en los pacientes infectados por el VIH, causando una importante morbi-mortalidad. Desde la llegada del tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA) frente al VIH, las tasas de infecciones producidas por MAC han disminuido significativamente; sin embargo, a pesar de que el TARGA ha alterado la frecuencia y el desenlace de estas infecciones, MAC sigue siendo una complicación importante en el SIDA. Se discute la microbiología de este microorganismo, así como se revisa la epidemiología, factores de riesgo, presentaciones clínicas, métodos diagnósticos y opciones terapeúticas actuales de las infecciones por MAC. Palabras clave: Mycobacterium avium complex; VIH; TARGA.

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Disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Disease in a HIV-Infected Patient. Case Report and Review of the Literature

ABSTRACT
We report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection with hepatic involvement in a patient diagnosed with AIDS fifteen years ago. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a common complication in HIV-infected patients, causing an important morbi-mortality. Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the rate of MAC infection has declined substantially; however, although HAART has altered the frequency and outcome of these infections, MAC remains an important complication of AIDS. We discuss the microbiology of this organism and review the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, diagnostic methods and current therapeutic options on MAC infections.
Key words: Mycobacterium avium complex; HIV; HAART.

Citas


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